1. Author First Name/Initial Surname, "Article Title," Journal Title Volume,
no. Issue (Year): page #, name of the database OR URL of journal article
2. Author Surname, "Article Title," page #.
Author Surname, First Name or Initial. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume,
no. Issue (Year): Page range of article. Name of the database OR
URL of journal article web page.
1. Valerie Bunce, "Rethinking Recent Democritization: Lessons from
the Postcommunist Experience," World Politics 55, no. 2 (2003): 168,
2. Bunce, "Rethinking Recent Democritization," 168.
Bunce, Valerie. "Rethinking Recent Democritization: Lessons from the
Postcommunist Experience." World Politics 55, no. 2 (2003): 167-192.
1. Kenneth Aitchison, "After the Gold Rush: Global Archeology in 2009," World
Archeology 41, no. 4 (2009): 670, doi: 10.1080/00438240903363772.
2. Aitchison. "After the Gold Rush," 670.
Aitchison, Kenneth. "After the Gold Rush: Global Archeology in 2009." World
Archeology 41, no. 4 (2009): 659-671. doi: 10.1080/00438240903363772.
A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique code preferred by publishers in the identification and exchange of the content of a digital object, such as a journal article, Web document, or other item of intellectual property. The DOI consists of two parts: a prefix assigned to each publisher by the administrative DOI agency and a suffix assigned by the publisher that may be any code the publisher chooses. DOIs and their corresponding URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) are registered in a central DOI directory that functions as a routing system.
The DOI is persistent, meaning that the identification of a digital object does not change even if ownership of or rights in the entity are transferred. It is also actionable, meaning that clicking on it in a Web browser display will redirect the user to the content. The DOI is also interoperable, designed to function in past, present, and future digital technologies. The registration and resolver system for the DOI is run by the International DOI Foundation (IDF).
If a DOI is listed on an electronic source it is included in the reference. When there is a choice between using a DOI or a URL, it is recommended that a DOI be used.
Reitz, Joan M. "Digital Object Identifier (DOI)." In Online Dictionary for
Library and Information Science. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Accessed February 21,
This guide is intended to cover only the Notes and Bibliography system for citing articles.
For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and a specific example will be provided.
The following format will be used:
Full Note - use the first time that you cite a source.
Concise Note - use after the first time you cite a source.
Bibliography - use when you are compiling the Bibliography that appears at the end of your paper.
Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.).
Numbers in parentheses refer to specific sections and pages in the manual.
Download this 2-page guide:
Websites with information on using Chicago style: